Deal history comparison #3433

Previous version (136963)

Selected version (139776)

Location #1

Spatial accuracy level
Exact location
Location
Gnit, Senegal

Latitude
16.279102218977034
Longitude
-15.931010735595692
Target country
Senegal
Comment on location
The land is located on the peripheral zone of the Ndiael Nature Reserve.

Location #2

Spatial accuracy level
Exact location
Location
Ross Bethio, Senegal

Latitude
16.377660551875504
Longitude
-15.905808432128879
Target country
Senegal
Comment on location
The land is located on the peripheral zone of the Ndiael Nature Reserve.

Location #3

Spatial accuracy level
Exact location
Location
Fas Ngom, Senegal

Latitude
16.056216271275215
Longitude
-16.31185985017089
Target country
Senegal
Comment on location
Fass Ngom town-- 5000ha in and around this town. This land has been taken back by the government.

Location #1

Spatial accuracy level
Exact location
Location
Gnit, Senegal

Latitude
16.279102218977034
Longitude
-15.931010735595692
Target country
Senegal
Comment on location
The land is located on the peripheral zone of the Ndiael Nature Reserve.

Location #2

Spatial accuracy level
Exact location
Location
Ross Bethio, Senegal

Latitude
16.377660551875504
Longitude
-15.905808432128879
Target country
Senegal
Comment on location
The land is located on the peripheral zone of the Ndiael Nature Reserve.

Location #3

Spatial accuracy level
Exact location
Location
Fas Ngom, Senegal

Latitude
16.056216271275215
Longitude
-16.31185985017089
Target country
Senegal
Comment on location
Fass Ngom town-- 5000ha in and around this town. This land has been taken back by the government.

Land area

Intended size (in ha)
26,500
Size under contract (leased or purchased area, in ha)
[2012] 20000
[2015] 25000
[2016] 15000
[2016] 10000
Size in operation (production, in ha)
[2015] 2000
Comment on land area
Originally gained the land in 2010, however project relocated from Fanaye after deadly protests. The eia states that the company will begin producing on 10000hectares initially. The project started operating again in 2012. 20000ha are intended for agribusiness and 6500ha for development activities for the local communities. 2000ha in 2015 under corn, rice and peanuts. Another source states 1800ha under production (rice, sunflower and groundnuts). Another source states 2300ha under production in 2014. The company claims to have acquired an additional 5000ha in Fass Ngom town in 2015. One report claims that the investors state that the company has 45000ha. The map from Jeremy indicates that the company has between 20000-30000ha only. The government returned 10000ha to the community in 2016- the community states that they still do not have access to this land. The land around Fass Ngom town was also taken away from the company (5000ha).

Intention of investment

Intention of investment
Biofuels, Food crops
Comment on intention of investment
Some reports suggest that sunflower production has haltered in April 2014. A report states that the company continually changes the produce: first was sweet potato, then sunflower, now corn, rice and peanuts. The company committed to have 2000ha of rice by 2017 for domestic markets. The company has planted acacia trees, however these are only for wind breaks and is not the intention of the investment. The company planned to use its expected annual output of 180,000 tons of sunflower seeds to produce biofuels.

Nature of the deal

Nature of the deal
Lease

Negotiation status

Negotiation status
[2012] Concluded (Contract signed)
Comment on negotiation status
Population at original site protested and forced the government to halt and relocate the project. The project was re-approved and relocated in 2012. Until May 2015, the company claims to have invested 30 million Euros.

Implementation status

Implementation status
[2013] Startup phase (no production)
[2014] In operation (production)
Comment on implementation status
5,000ha cleared. Planting of sunflowers in process. More than 24,000 signatures were collected in one week through an international petition launched by ActionAid and Re:Common to ask Tampieri Group, a food processing company that operates in Faenza, to withdraw from a project in the Senegalese reserve of Ndiael. The company is producing on the land regardless of the fact that their operations are not transparent. The company has changed management several times during the operation of the project. Another report states that the company has brought in a consultant to look at the possibility of selling the company. Key equipment is already being sold. Sources within the country state that the project is still operational (March 2017). Workers on strike in September 2017 due to unpaid wages and unpaid contribution to social security fund. One report states that the Italian management have left the country.

Leasing fees

Annual leasing fee
40,000,000
Annual leasing fee currency
CFA Franc BCEAO
Annual leasing fee type
for specified area
Purchase price area
5,000
Comment on leasing fees
Land has been attributed for free. Another report states leasing fee of USD 100,000 a year. The land around Fass Ngom (5000ha) is leased for 40 million FCFA per year.

Contract farming

Contract farming
No

Land area

Intended size (in ha)
26,500
Size under contract (leased or purchased area, in ha)
[2012] 20000
[2015] 25000
[2016] 15000
[2016] 10000
Size in operation (production, in ha)
[2015] 2000
Comment on land area
Originally gained the land in 2010, however project relocated from Fanaye after deadly protests. The eia states that the company will begin producing on 10000hectares initially. The project started operating again in 2012. 20000ha are intended for agribusiness and 6500ha for development activities for the local communities. 2000ha in 2015 under corn, rice and peanuts. Another source states 1800ha under production (rice, sunflower and groundnuts). Another source states 2300ha under production in 2014. The company claims to have acquired an additional 5000ha in Fass Ngom town in 2015. One report claims that the investors state that the company has 45000ha. The map from Jeremy indicates that the company has between 20000-30000ha only. The government returned 10000ha to the community in 2016- the community states that they still do not have access to this land. The land around Fass Ngom town was also taken away from the company (5000ha). The community is still campaigning for the remaining 10 000 ha to be taken away.

Intention of investment

Intention of investment
Biofuels, Food crops
Comment on intention of investment
Some reports suggest that sunflower production has haltered in April 2014. A report states that the company continually changes the produce: first was sweet potato, then sunflower, now corn, rice and peanuts. The company committed to have 2000ha of rice by 2017 for domestic markets. The company has planted acacia trees, however these are only for wind breaks and is not the intention of the investment. The company planned to use its expected annual output of 180,000 tons of sunflower seeds to produce biofuels.

Nature of the deal

Nature of the deal
Lease

Negotiation status

Negotiation status
[2012] Concluded (Contract signed)
Comment on negotiation status
Population at original site protested and forced the government to halt and relocate the project. The project was re-approved and relocated in 2012. Until May 2015, the company claims to have invested 30 million Euros.

Implementation status

Implementation status
[2013] Startup phase (no production)
[2014] In operation (production)
Comment on implementation status
5,000ha cleared. Planting of sunflowers in process. More than 24,000 signatures were collected in one week through an international petition launched by ActionAid and Re:Common to ask Tampieri Group, a food processing company that operates in Faenza, to withdraw from a project in the Senegalese reserve of Ndiael. The company is producing on the land regardless of the fact that their operations are not transparent. The company has changed management several times during the operation of the project. Another report states that the company has brought in a consultant to look at the possibility of selling the company. Key equipment is already being sold. Sources within the country state that the project is still operational (March 2017). Workers on strike in September 2017 due to unpaid wages and unpaid contribution to social security fund. One report states that the Italian management have left the country.

Leasing fees

Annual leasing fee
40,000,000
Annual leasing fee currency
CFA Franc BCEAO
Annual leasing fee type
for specified area
Purchase price area
5,000
Comment on leasing fees
Land has been attributed for free. Another report states leasing fee of USD 100,000 a year. The land around Fass Ngom (5000ha) is leased for 40 million FCFA per year.

Contract farming

Contract farming
No

Contract #1

Duration of the agreement (in years)
50

Contract #1

Duration of the agreement (in years)
50

Number of jobs for foreigners created

Jobs created (foreign)
Yes
Comment on jobs created (foreign)
One report states that the majority of the permanent positions at the company were offered to Italians.

Number of domestic jobs created

Jobs created (domestic)
Yes
Planned daily/seasonal workers (domestic)
300
Comment on jobs created (domestic)
Exact numbers are not known as there are no official reports. The EIA states 2500 direct jobs. The company is going through the difficulties and are retrenching workers-as the company believes they are overstaffed.In 2014, 103 workers from the surrounding communities were fired. Most of the jobs created for the local communities are daily jobs with no job security. There are disputes over the pay offered for local communities. Workers on strike in September 2017 due to unpaid wages and unpaid contribution to social security fund.

Number of jobs for foreigners created

Jobs created (foreign)
Yes
Comment on jobs created (foreign)
One report states that the majority of the permanent positions at the company were offered to Italians.

Number of domestic jobs created

Jobs created (domestic)
Yes
Planned daily/seasonal workers (domestic)
300
Comment on jobs created (domestic)
Exact numbers are not known as there are no official reports. The EIA states 2500 direct jobs. The company is going through the difficulties and are retrenching workers-as the company believes they are overstaffed.In 2014, 103 workers from the surrounding communities were fired. Most of the jobs created for the local communities are daily jobs with no job security. There are disputes over the pay offered for local communities. Workers on strike in September 2017 due to unpaid wages and unpaid contribution to social security fund.

Operating company

Operating company
Name of investment project
SenEthanol / SenHuile

Operating company

Operating company
Name of investment project
SenEthanol / SenHuile

Data source #1

Data source type
Media report
File
Comment on data source
Sene Web

Data source #2

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2016-01-26
Comment on data source
Farmland Grab- Senhuile

Data source #3

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2013-11-08
Comment on data source
Grain website- Who is behind the Senhuile Senethanol?

Data source #4

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2013-07-25
Comment on data source
Farmland Grab- Projet SENHUILE-SENETHANOL: A Gnith, une unité de biocarburants fait renaître l’espoir

Data source #5

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2014-03-04
Comment on data source
Farm land Grabs- Senegal, colonia della finanza italiana

Data source #6

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2015-02-02
Comment on data source
Farmland Grab- Grogne des travailleurs de Senhuile: la direction parle de "départs négociés" et non de "licenciements".

Data source #7

Data source type
Personal information
Date
2016-08-23
Comment on data source
"The tampierie financial group (Senhuile) in Senegal. They had more than 35000 hectare in the north of Senegal. - 20.000ha in the reserve of Ndiael, It was declassified by our former president Abdoulaye Wade. But this government take back 10000ha, means that they have now 10.000ha in the natural reserve of Ndiael. - Beside that, they had also, 5000 ha in Fass Ngom (in the north of Senegal), but it's taken back by the states. Now they only have 10.000ha in the natural reserve of Ndiael."

Data source #8

Data source type
Research Paper / Policy Report
File
Comment on data source
Act!onaid- The Great Land Heist How the world is paving the way for corporate land grabs, May 2014

Data source #9

Data source type
Personal information
Date
2013-09-18

Data source #10

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2014-08-18
Comment on data source
Farmland Grab- Tournée économique Macky Sall : Les anti-Senhuile promettent l'enfer !

Data source #11

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2014-03-03
Comment on data source
Farm Land Grab- Land grab in Senegal, responsabilità italiana

Data source #12

Data source type
Research Paper / Policy Report
File
Date
2015-02-11
Comment on data source
Farmland Grab- Le mirage Senhuile : création d'emplois, autosuffisance alimentaire

Data source #13

Data source type
Company sources
File
Comment on data source
La responsabilité sociale d'entreprise

Data source #14

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2015-12-17
Comment on data source
Farmland Grab- Senhuile: Director General Massimo Castelluci fired

Data source #15

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2014-04-21
Comment on data source
Wetlands International - SENEGAL / CAMPAIGN FOR THE PROTECTION OF NDIAEL LANDS - 37 VILLAGES IN THE AREA SAY “NO” TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SENHUILE SENETHANOL AND THREATEN TO MARCH WITH CATTLES

Data source #16

Data source type
Contract
File
Comment on data source
Protocol d'Accord

Data source #17

Data source type
Media report
File
Comment on data source
The Rural Hub- Support to land stakeholders, News

Data source #18

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2014-03-07
Comment on data source
Farm Land Grab- In Senegal, a clash on land leased from the government

Data source #19

Data source type
Other (Please specify in comment field)
File
Comment on data source
ILC 2015 Conference- notes on the controversial presence of multinational corporation Senhuile-Senethanol in the Ndiael wildlife reserve

Data source #20

Data source type
Research Paper / Policy Report
File
Comment on data source
L’investissement Senhuile-Senethanol à Ndiael, Sénégal. Quel avenir sans ma terre ? Des communautés mobilisées pour récupérer leur terre, October 2014, Action Aid

Data source #21

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2014-01-30
Comment on data source
Farmland Grab- Senhuile-Senéthanol: Farmers determined to oppose it -

Data source #22

Data source type
Research Paper / Policy Report
File
Date
2013-06-13
Comment on data source
Re:Common -- Land Grabbers – Italy’s involvement in the Great Land Grab

Data source #23

Data source type
Research Paper / Policy Report
File
Comment on data source
Senegal- Come Si accaparra la terra: La saga Senhuile-Senethanol continua, Re:Common

Data source #24

Data source type
Personal information
Date
2017-03-29
Comment on data source
"Senhuile is still working as far as I know. I ll let you know if I find otherwise. "

Data source #25

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2014-02-27
Comment on data source
Farmland Grab- Senegalese farmers and herders demand shady transnational corporation Senhuile SA get off their land

Data source #26

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2016-04-26
Comment on data source
Action Aid- #LANDfor SENEGAL: una buona notizia!

Data source #27

Data source type
Research Paper / Policy Report
File
Comment on data source
Re:Common- Comment on accapare la terre. La saga Senhuile- Senethanol continue.

Data source #28

Data source type
Personal information
File
Date
2015-10-08
Includes in-country-verified information
Yes
Comment on data source
Jérémy confirmed that #3433 and #1795 are separate cases. The map depicts the locations of these and several other cases.

Data source #29

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2015-04-08
Comment on data source
Senhuile SA: The Municipality of Fass Ngom has signed a contract to operate 40 million FCFA

Data source #30

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2016-01-17
Comment on data source
Farmland Grab- Sénégal : Massimo Vittorio Campadese, nouveau directeur général de la Senhuile.

Data source #31

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2017-09-11
Comment on data source
Problème foncier dans le Djael : Les populations éleveurs continuent de défier Senhuile et les autorités administratives de la région

Data source #32

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2017-09-12
Comment on data source
Senhuile : les travailleurs en colère bloquent les machines

Data source #33

Data source type
Research Paper / Policy Report
File
Comment on data source
Surrendering Our Future: Senhuile-Senéthanol Plantation Destroys local communities and Jeopardizes environment. February 2014.

Data source #34

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2014-03-05
Comment on data source
Farm land Grabs- Senhuile–Senéthanol : un problème de transparence, selon Frédéric Mousseau

Data source #35

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2015-09-29
Comment on data source
Farmland Grab- Fass Ngom, une localité, plusieurs visages

Data source #36

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2014-03-04
Comment on data source
Farm Land Grab- La foire aux ombres chinoises

Data source #37

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2014-03-29
Comment on data source
Des villages piétinés par l’agrobusiness- Le Courrier by Michael Rodriguez

Data source #38

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2015-07-24
Comment on data source
Global Research-- Senegal Land Grab on the verge of Implosion

Data source #39

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2017-10-05
Comment on data source
TAMPIERI FINANCIAL GROUP a cédé la totalité de ses actions dans SENHUILE SA (communiqué). Tampieri Ficancial Group sold all of its shares in SENHUILE SA to Mr. Gora SECK

Data source #1

Data source type
Media report
File
Comment on data source
Sene Web

Data source #2

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2016-01-26
Comment on data source
Farmland Grab- Senhuile

Data source #3

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2013-11-08
Comment on data source
Grain website- Who is behind the Senhuile Senethanol?

Data source #4

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2013-07-25
Comment on data source
Farmland Grab- Projet SENHUILE-SENETHANOL: A Gnith, une unité de biocarburants fait renaître l’espoir

Data source #5

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2014-03-04
Comment on data source
Farm land Grabs- Senegal, colonia della finanza italiana

Data source #6

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2015-02-02
Comment on data source
Farmland Grab- Grogne des travailleurs de Senhuile: la direction parle de "départs négociés" et non de "licenciements".

Data source #7

Data source type
Personal information
Date
2016-08-23
Comment on data source
"The tampierie financial group (Senhuile) in Senegal. They had more than 35000 hectare in the north of Senegal. - 20.000ha in the reserve of Ndiael, It was declassified by our former president Abdoulaye Wade. But this government take back 10000ha, means that they have now 10.000ha in the natural reserve of Ndiael. - Beside that, they had also, 5000 ha in Fass Ngom (in the north of Senegal), but it's taken back by the states. Now they only have 10.000ha in the natural reserve of Ndiael."

Data source #8

Data source type
Research Paper / Policy Report
File
Comment on data source
Act!onaid- The Great Land Heist How the world is paving the way for corporate land grabs, May 2014

Data source #9

Data source type
Personal information
Date
2013-09-18

Data source #10

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2014-08-18
Comment on data source
Farmland Grab- Tournée économique Macky Sall : Les anti-Senhuile promettent l'enfer !

Data source #11

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2014-03-03
Comment on data source
Farm Land Grab- Land grab in Senegal, responsabilità italiana

Data source #12

Data source type
Research Paper / Policy Report
File
Date
2015-02-11
Comment on data source
Farmland Grab- Le mirage Senhuile : création d'emplois, autosuffisance alimentaire

Data source #13

Data source type
Company sources
File
Comment on data source
La responsabilité sociale d'entreprise

Data source #14

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2015-12-17
Comment on data source
Farmland Grab- Senhuile: Director General Massimo Castelluci fired

Data source #15

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2014-04-21
Comment on data source
Wetlands International - SENEGAL / CAMPAIGN FOR THE PROTECTION OF NDIAEL LANDS - 37 VILLAGES IN THE AREA SAY “NO” TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SENHUILE SENETHANOL AND THREATEN TO MARCH WITH CATTLES

Data source #16

Data source type
Contract
File
Comment on data source
Protocol d'Accord

Data source #17

Data source type
Media report
File
Comment on data source
The Rural Hub- Support to land stakeholders, News

Data source #18

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2014-03-07
Comment on data source
Farm Land Grab- In Senegal, a clash on land leased from the government

Data source #19

Data source type
Other (Please specify in comment field)
File
Comment on data source
ILC 2015 Conference- notes on the controversial presence of multinational corporation Senhuile-Senethanol in the Ndiael wildlife reserve

Data source #20

Data source type
Research Paper / Policy Report
File
Comment on data source
L’investissement Senhuile-Senethanol à Ndiael, Sénégal. Quel avenir sans ma terre ? Des communautés mobilisées pour récupérer leur terre, October 2014, Action Aid

Data source #21

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2014-01-30
Comment on data source
Farmland Grab- Senhuile-Senéthanol: Farmers determined to oppose it -

Data source #22

Data source type
Research Paper / Policy Report
File
Date
2013-06-13
Comment on data source
Re:Common -- Land Grabbers – Italy’s involvement in the Great Land Grab

Data source #23

Data source type
Research Paper / Policy Report
File
Comment on data source
Senegal- Come Si accaparra la terra: La saga Senhuile-Senethanol continua, Re:Common

Data source #24

Data source type
Personal information
Date
2017-03-29
Comment on data source
"Senhuile is still working as far as I know. I ll let you know if I find otherwise. "

Data source #25

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2014-02-27
Comment on data source
Farmland Grab- Senegalese farmers and herders demand shady transnational corporation Senhuile SA get off their land

Data source #26

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2016-04-26
Comment on data source
Action Aid- #LANDfor SENEGAL: una buona notizia!

Data source #27

Data source type
Research Paper / Policy Report
File
Comment on data source
Re:Common- Comment on accapare la terre. La saga Senhuile- Senethanol continue.

Data source #28

Data source type
Personal information
File
Date
2015-10-08
Includes in-country-verified information
Yes
Comment on data source
Jérémy confirmed that #3433 and #1795 are separate cases. The map depicts the locations of these and several other cases.

Data source #29

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2015-04-08
Comment on data source
Senhuile SA: The Municipality of Fass Ngom has signed a contract to operate 40 million FCFA

Data source #30

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2016-01-17
Comment on data source
Farmland Grab- Sénégal : Massimo Vittorio Campadese, nouveau directeur général de la Senhuile.

Data source #31

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2017-09-11
Comment on data source
Problème foncier dans le Djael : Les populations éleveurs continuent de défier Senhuile et les autorités administratives de la région

Data source #32

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2017-09-12
Comment on data source
Senhuile : les travailleurs en colère bloquent les machines

Data source #33

Data source type
Research Paper / Policy Report
File
Comment on data source
Surrendering Our Future: Senhuile-Senéthanol Plantation Destroys local communities and Jeopardizes environment. February 2014.

Data source #34

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2014-03-05
Comment on data source
Farm land Grabs- Senhuile–Senéthanol : un problème de transparence, selon Frédéric Mousseau

Data source #35

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2015-09-29
Comment on data source
Farmland Grab- Fass Ngom, une localité, plusieurs visages

Data source #36

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2014-03-04
Comment on data source
Farm Land Grab- La foire aux ombres chinoises

Data source #37

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2014-03-29
Comment on data source
Des villages piétinés par l’agrobusiness- Le Courrier by Michael Rodriguez

Data source #38

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2015-07-24
Comment on data source
Global Research-- Senegal Land Grab on the verge of Implosion

Data source #39

Data source type
Media report
File
Date
2017-10-05
Comment on data source
TAMPIERI FINANCIAL GROUP a cédé la totalité de ses actions dans SENHUILE SA (communiqué). Tampieri Ficancial Group sold all of its shares in SENHUILE SA to Mr. Gora SECK

Data source #40

Data source type
Media report
File
Publication title
DES MILLIERS D’HECTARES AFFECTES A DES INVESTISSEURS ETRANGERS SANS L’ACCORD DES POPULATIONS
Date
2018-10-31

Consultation of local community

Community consultation
Limited consultation
Comment on consultation of local community
Initially the community was not consulted, however they were consulted during the social impact assessment conducted in 2013. In January 2014, a memorandum was signed between the communities and companies, which details their respective responsibilities. However the MOU does not ensure that the commitments made by the company are binding. Never free and informed consent as meetings were just an attempt by the company to convince the communities about the benefits of the project.

How did the community react?

Community reaction
Rejection
Comment on community reaction
The local community have rejected the project since its inception. The community asked the government to allocate the land to themselves rather than the company. Heavy protests by locals causing fatal casualties forced the project to be relocated. Protests continue in newly assigned area.In addition to the deaths caused by the protests three children have drowned in irrigation canals dug by the company. Villagers have traveled to Europe, to the offices of Tampieri, in February 2014 to try to halt the project. The local communities got together and created the Collectif de Défense des Intérêts du Ndiael (Association for the Defence of the Interests of Ndiael) which comprises of 37 villages affected by the project with civil society organisations such as ENDA PRONAT, ACTION AID, and CNCR.

Displacement of people

Comment on displacement of people
9,000 people in 40 villages (another source mentions as many as 55 villages) are affected, however none have been displaced. The company has established plantations 300-500m from the villages. The company has taken away grazing land, land for cultivation, water collection points and collection of timber. In some cases households are enclosed by the plantations. Populations living close to the project are constantly being forced with eviction.

Promised or received compensation

Promised compensation (e.g. for damages or resettlements)
The lease did not provide for the community to be compensated for their loss of access to land for grazing and collecting of other natural resources. However, the company has allocated a portion (size unknown) to the communities for grazing- this land is not sufficient. Indeed In a memoranda of understanding, Senhuile agrees to provide 0.3 hectares to the families of the local communities. 189 hectares has been distributed by Senhuile to some families. The company has made various donations and support for the populations, Senhuile began paying an exceptional budgetary support to the commune, 40 million CFA francs for 2014. In 2015, the local treasure will receive CHF 20 million as annual financial support decided by a common agreement.

Promised benefits for local communities

Promised benefits for local communities
Health
Education
Productive infrastructure (e.g. irrigation, tractors, machinery...)
Capacity Building
Comment on promised benefits for local communities
very few benefits have been delivered to the community to date. The company promised to build walls around the local cemetery. The company has given all the villagers affected a total of 50 000tonnes of fodder once. Senhuile it is also committed in the creation of two micro-projects: the creation of three community gardens by a each hectare (land made available from the villages and not by the company) for women, and the construction of four classrooms.

Consultation of local community

Community consultation
Limited consultation
Comment on consultation of local community
Initially the community was not consulted, however they were consulted during the social impact assessment conducted in 2013. In January 2014, a memorandum was signed between the communities and companies, which details their respective responsibilities. However the MOU does not ensure that the commitments made by the company are binding. Never free and informed consent as meetings were just an attempt by the company to convince the communities about the benefits of the project.

How did the community react?

Community reaction
Rejection
Comment on community reaction
The local community have rejected the project since its inception. The community asked the government to allocate the land to themselves rather than the company. Heavy protests by locals causing fatal casualties forced the project to be relocated. Protests continue in newly assigned area.In addition to the deaths caused by the protests three children have drowned in irrigation canals dug by the company. Villagers have traveled to Europe, to the offices of Tampieri, in February 2014 to try to halt the project. The local communities got together and created the Collectif de Défense des Intérêts du Ndiael (Association for the Defence of the Interests of Ndiael) which comprises of 37 villages affected by the project with civil society organisations such as ENDA PRONAT, ACTION AID, and CNCR.

Displacement of people

Comment on displacement of people
9,000 people in 40 villages (another source mentions as many as 55 villages) are affected, however none have been displaced. The company has established plantations 300-500m from the villages. The company has taken away grazing land, land for cultivation, water collection points and collection of timber. In some cases households are enclosed by the plantations. Populations living close to the project are constantly being forced with eviction.

Promised or received compensation

Promised compensation (e.g. for damages or resettlements)
The lease did not provide for the community to be compensated for their loss of access to land for grazing and collecting of other natural resources. However, the company has allocated a portion (size unknown) to the communities for grazing- this land is not sufficient. Indeed In a memoranda of understanding, Senhuile agrees to provide 0.3 hectares to the families of the local communities. 189 hectares has been distributed by Senhuile to some families. The company has made various donations and support for the populations, Senhuile began paying an exceptional budgetary support to the commune, 40 million CFA francs for 2014. In 2015, the local treasure will receive CHF 20 million as annual financial support decided by a common agreement.

Promised benefits for local communities

Promised benefits for local communities
Health
Education
Productive infrastructure (e.g. irrigation, tractors, machinery...)
Capacity Building
Comment on promised benefits for local communities
very few benefits have been delivered to the community to date. The company promised to build walls around the local cemetery. The company has given all the villagers affected a total of 50 000tonnes of fodder once. Senhuile it is also committed in the creation of two micro-projects: the creation of three community gardens by a each hectare (land made available from the villages and not by the company) for women, and the construction of four classrooms.

Former land owner (not by constitution)

Former land owner
State
Community
Comment on former land owner
Land around Fass Ngom formally owned by the community. State in other locations owned by state- Ndiaël reserve.

Former land use

Former land use
Smallholder agriculture
Conservation
Comment on former land use
Land around Fass Ngom was used for smallholder agriculture. Ndiaël was labeled Wetland of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention intergovernmental treaty designed to protect and ensure the sustainable use of water resources and a home for migratory birds. This protection was broken in 2011 when President Wade has changed the classification of the area to allow the company operate there . Local communities were allowed to graze their cattle and collect resources (like fire wood) from within the reserve. The company's activities have lead to deforestation.

Former land cover

Former land cover
Cropland
Shrub land/Grassland (Rangeland)
Marginal land
Comment on former land cover
Land around Fass Ngom used for grazing and crops. An environmental impact assessment was only conducted months after the project commenced. The Ministry of Environment rejected the EIA stating that more information was needed as the report had omitted to discuss the negative environmental and social impacts which would arise from the project . The EIA was also not made public.

Former land owner (not by constitution)

Former land owner
State
Community
Comment on former land owner
Land around Fass Ngom formally owned by the community. State in other locations owned by state- Ndiaël reserve.

Former land use

Former land use
Smallholder agriculture
Conservation
Comment on former land use
Land around Fass Ngom was used for smallholder agriculture. Ndiaël was labeled Wetland of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention intergovernmental treaty designed to protect and ensure the sustainable use of water resources and a home for migratory birds. This protection was broken in 2011 when President Wade has changed the classification of the area to allow the company operate there . Local communities were allowed to graze their cattle and collect resources (like fire wood) from within the reserve. The company's activities have lead to deforestation.

Former land cover

Former land cover
Cropland
Shrub land/Grassland (Rangeland)
Marginal land
Comment on former land cover
Land around Fass Ngom used for grazing and crops. An environmental impact assessment was only conducted months after the project commenced. The Ministry of Environment rejected the EIA stating that more information was needed as the report had omitted to discuss the negative environmental and social impacts which would arise from the project . The EIA was also not made public.

Detailed crop, animal and mineral information

Crops area
Corn (Maize), Peanut (groundnut), Rice, Sun Flower, Sweet Potatoes

Use of produce

Has domestic use
Yes
Has export
Yes
Country 1
Italy
Comment on use of produce
The company is starting to produce rice, maize, sunflowers and peanut seeds for the domestic market. The rice is sold to the company Senegal Fodder. Tempieri joined the project to get raw grains for its edible oil producing factory in Italy and plans to make an investment of 15 million euros (US$20m). One report states that the sweet potatoes are cultivated for bioethanol for the European markets.

In country processing of produce

In country processing of produce
Yes
Comment on in country processing of produce
Agrofuel- some reports suggest that the company is moving away from agrofuels as the project ages. Production volumes are less than expected.

Detailed crop, animal and mineral information

Crops area
Corn (Maize), Peanut (groundnut), Rice, Sun Flower, Sweet Potatoes

Use of produce

Has domestic use
Yes
Has export
Yes
Country 1
Italy
Comment on use of produce
The company is starting to produce rice, maize, sunflowers and peanut seeds for the domestic market. The rice is sold to the company Senegal Fodder. Tempieri joined the project to get raw grains for its edible oil producing factory in Italy and plans to make an investment of 15 million euros (US$20m). One report states that the sweet potatoes are cultivated for bioethanol for the European markets.

In country processing of produce

In country processing of produce
Yes
Comment on in country processing of produce
Agrofuel- some reports suggest that the company is moving away from agrofuels as the project ages. Production volumes are less than expected.

Water extraction envisaged

Water extraction envisaged
Yes
Comment on water extraction envisaged
Irrigation channels have been built, which has led to the death of three children from the community during 2013.

Source of water extraction

Source of water extraction
Surface water (River, Lake)
Comment on source of water extraction
Water is obtained from Lake Guiers which fills from the Senegal River. All sources of water on the allocated land have been given to the company, thus reducing villagers access to water.

How much water is extracted?

Comment on how much water is extracted
The lake from which water is extracted supplies 65% of the population in Dakar, and is already threatened with pollution.An impact study was not conducted on the lake prior to water extraction by the company. There has been an increase in pressure on the water resources in the area with the company present. In addition the use of bio-fertilisers, containing nitrogen, by the company is due to pollute the already stressed water sources.

Water extraction envisaged

Water extraction envisaged
Yes
Comment on water extraction envisaged
Irrigation channels have been built, which has led to the death of three children from the community during 2013.

Source of water extraction

Source of water extraction
Surface water (River, Lake)
Comment on source of water extraction
Water is obtained from Lake Guiers which fills from the Senegal River. All sources of water on the allocated land have been given to the company, thus reducing villagers access to water.

How much water is extracted?

Comment on how much water is extracted
The lake from which water is extracted supplies 65% of the population in Dakar, and is already threatened with pollution.An impact study was not conducted on the lake prior to water extraction by the company. There has been an increase in pressure on the water resources in the area with the company present. In addition the use of bio-fertilisers, containing nitrogen, by the company is due to pollute the already stressed water sources.

Any gender-specific information about the investment and its impacts

Comment on gender-related info
Women are suffering more than men from the lack of access to water and other resources, as typically take on these tasks. In addition, women sell the milk from cattle in the market, however the amount of milk is reduced due to limited water and grazing.

Any gender-specific information about the investment and its impacts

Comment on gender-related info
Women are suffering more than men from the lack of access to water and other resources, as typically take on these tasks. In addition, women sell the milk from cattle in the market, however the amount of milk is reduced due to limited water and grazing.

Overall comment

Overall comment
One report states that the project is on the verge of collapse. Another report states that the company has brought in a consultant to look at the possibility of selling the company. Key equipment is being sold. The government gave the community members 10000ha back in 2016. Sources within the country state that the project is still operational (March 2017).

Overall comment

Overall comment
One report states that the project is on the verge of collapse. Another report states that the company has brought in a consultant to look at the possibility of selling the company. Key equipment is being sold. The government gave the community members 10000ha back in 2016. Sources within the country state that the project is still operational (March 2017).